Warcovers :: Up to 1914 :: 1816 entire GIBRALTAR to 'Andrew Phair, New Brunswick'. Bombardment of Algiers

1816 entire GIBRALTAR to 'Andrew Phair, New Brunswick'. Bombardment of Algiers

1816 entire GIBRALTAR to 'Andrew Phair, New Brunswick'. Bombardment of Algiers
1816 (Aug. 15th) entire from GIBRALTAR to 'Andrew Phair, New Brunswick, North America' with circ. HALIFAX receipt p/m. (2nd. Nov.) Message refers to the Bombardment of Algiers on the 27th. Aug. 1816. 'BUGDEN & WILMOET / 1912' watermarked paper.
mss "Gibraltar Aug. 15th. 1816. Dear Sally,
Lord Exmouths fleet arrived here from England a few days ago, and sailed yesterday against the Algerians, he is determined to knock the town (Algiers) about their ears. I am afraid he is taking the Bull by the Horns, for the place is extreamly strong, having upwards of twelve hundred pieces of cannon mounted and surrounded by an enormus wall. Lord E's fleet consists of seven sail of the line and eleven frigates and smaller craft; the Dutch fleet consisting of five large frigates has also jioned him, there are a thousand Marines on board , part of a troop of Rockets, and a Company of Sapers and Miners , under Major Gospel of the Engineers. The Artillery offered their services, but his Lordship declined accepting them on the score of de***** the force & portion of prize money in care of .

I cannot find the postage to Gibraltar from America, as we have no Post Office here; all letters are made up at the Secretary's Office; and we pay no postage for any letter going or coming, which accounts for your letters not reaching us, as this postage must be paid by some person in England, otherwise the letter lay in the General Post Office.

Your Affet. Brother,
DH Straton.

During the Napoleonic Wars, out of necessity Britain had cooperated with the Barbary states to ensure the supply of resources to Gibraltar and the British Navy in the Mediterranean. At the end of the war, when in a position to do so, Britain exerted enormous pressure on those states to end their piracy and their enslavement of Christians. The Deys of Tunis and Tripoli bowed to the pressure, but the Dey of Algiers was more reluctant. When, perhaps as the result of a misunderstanding, Mediterranean fishermen under British protection were massacred by Algerian forces, Europe was outraged and Britain acted decisively. A modest British fleet attacked and severely damaged the port of Algiers in a battle which raged into the night until, at a point, the British fleet weighed anchor and sailed out of range of the Algerian defences. A letter was sent to the Dey explaining that the destruction of the harbour had been a display of British capabilities, that Britain held the Bey personally responsible, that he would have no peace with Britain unless he capitulated and furthermore that unless he capitulated immediately Britain would turn her forces against his city and his subjects. Some 3,000 Christian slaves were released as a result but the Dey soon replaced them with non-Christian Europeans, Jews and Africans, and the wider slave trade in Algeria continued until its colonization by France in 1830. During their heyday from the 16th to the 18th centuries Barbary slavers may have captured over a million people from as far north as Iceland, the Middle East, sub-Saharan and Western Africa, and even seafarers from the United States.

Rockets were used effectively during the Napoleonic Wars.

Lt. ANDREW PHAIR b. Co. Cork, Ireland ca. 1757, d. Fredericton, York Co., NB 9 NOV 1824 age 67 years, buried Old Burying Ground, Fredericton, Fredericton Parish, York Co., NB, m. NY 11 MAY 1782 MARGARET BARRY (b. ca. 1754 (ca, 1763), d. Fredericton, York Co., NB 27 JUL 1833 age 79 years; possibly m. 1st Lt. William Phair).
In 1802, Andrew Phair was granted administration of the estate of John Carnes, in Fredericton. He was also granted, in the same year, administration of the estate of Thomas Staples and of Isaac Hedden. This suggests that Andrew was a solicitor or public official.
His daughter, Isabella S. Phair, m. 9 SEP 1809 Lt. John M. Stratton of the Royal Artillery. A possible son was William B. Phair, at the time in the 104th New Brunswick Fencible Regiment of Foot, who m. Fredericton, 5 AUG 1816 Rebecca Hanney, d/o Andrew Rainsford. Andrew Rainsford was Assistant Barrack Master General and Andrew Phair was Barrack Master General, so the relationship ins implied. Andrew was likely married twice as a step-daughter, Sarah Barry, d. SEP 1821. Andrew Phair d. 9 NOV 1824 age 67 years. He was also Post Master for Fredericton.
Andrew is considered to have been a Loyalist in the American Revolution serving with Maj. Gen. Benedict Arnold in the Loyal American Legion.
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Item Code 319-070
 
Price: £500.00
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